# Use Python3 to Model and Visualize Harmonic Waveforms

We provide a simple Python script and examples to model and visualize square and triangle waves with applications to circuit design and test.

## Overview

An understanding of harmonics is important in many areas of engineering, especially circuit design and test. It's important to understand that an approximate square wave (e.g., clock) is constructed through the process of adding a fundamental wave with many of its scaled, odd harmonics.

Oscilloscope vendors all have their own recommendations for the required scope bandwidth for a particular frequency of interest. We typically use the rule of 5 times. For example, a 625 MHz clock requires a scope bandwidth of over 3GHz. In other words, a 4GHz bandwidth scope would allow us to see the 3rd harmonic (1.875 Ghz) and 5th harmonic (3.125 GHz) of a 625 MHz clock (fundamental plus two odd harmonics).

This article summarizes and provides a simple Python script that can be used to model and visualize such waveforms. Both square and triangle waves can be easily visualized, and the code can be extended to create other waveforms through a customizable scaling function factor()

The generic harmonics equation modeled by the Python script is shown below using Math ML. Note that a square wave would only have odd harmonics.

y(t) = $\underset{k=1}{\overset{N+1}{\Sigma }}{k}^{-1}\mathrm{sin\left(2\omega kft\right)}$

We provide some examples below. Note that both Matplotlib and Numpy are required.

## Examples

```\$ python3 harmonics.py -h
usage: harmonics.py [-h] [-f FREQUENCY] [-n HARMONICS] [-t TYPE] [-s SHAPE]

plot harmonics

optional arguments:
-h, --help            show this help message and exit
-f FREQUENCY, --frequency FREQUENCY
specify the frequency
-n HARMONICS, --harmonics HARMONICS
specify the number of harmonics
-t TYPE, --type TYPE  specify the type of harmonics (even, odd, or all)
-s SHAPE, --shape SHAPE
specify the shaping factor (square, triangle)

Version: 0.2
```

Generate the fundamental (sine wave)

```\$ python3 harmonics.py
```

Generate the fundamental (sine wave) + 2 harmonics. We can see the square wave taking shape with large ripples.

```\$ python3 harmonics.py -n 2
```

Let's crank up the harmonics to see that we begin to approximate an ideal square wave.

```\$ python3 harmonics.py -n 1000
```

Generate a triangle wave. Note that the equation is now different due to a different scaling of the harmonics. See reference below.

```\$ python3 harmonics.py -n 1000 -s triangle
```

## Harmonics Example using Oscilloscope

In the two figures below, we capture an oscilloscope screen shot by probing a ~10MHz clock signal generated by an FPGA on our Darsena card. We're using a passive probe that has an intrinisic bandwidth of 500 MHz to probe a standard 100 mil connector post.

The first figure shows a very clean, rounded clock using a 20 MHz bandwidth limited filter in our scope's front end.

The next figure shows the exact same signal but this time using a 200MHz bandwidth filter. As you can see, we're now able to capture more harmonics and get a better look at the actual signal (plus noise due to our passive probe).

Two points to consider here are that adequate bandwidth in a scope can be absolutely critical in debugging a circuit. In the extreme case, limited bandwidth may mask seeing a glitch on the circuit board. Also keep in mind that the amplitude of the harmonics roll off quickly (e.g., 1/h), so it's typically not critical to see higher order harmonics.

## Source

The Python script harmonics.py is provided below. Note the disclaimer in the header of the file.

python3 script, harmonics.py
```##############################################################################
#
# Copyright (c) 2019, 2020 Mind Chasers Inc.
#
#    file: harmonics.py
#
#    create and visualize harmonic waveforms
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ANY AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
# WARRANTIES ARE DISCLAIMED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
# WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTABILITY, AGAINST INFRINGEMENT, AND FITNESS
# FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
#
##############################################################################

import matplotlib.pylab as plt
import numpy as np
import argparse

VERSION = '0.2'

def factor(shape, k, i):
if shape == "triangle":
return (1/(k*k) * (-1)**i)
else:
return (1/k)

if __name__ == '__main__':

parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='plot harmonics',
epilog='Version: ' + VERSION)
parser.add_argument('-n','--harmonics',default=0,type=int, help='specify the number of harmonics',action='store')
parser.add_argument('-t','--type',default='odd',type=str, help='specify the type of harmonics (even, odd, or all)',action='store')
parser.add_argument('-s','--shape',default='square',type=str, help='specify the shaping factor (square, triangle)',action='store')

args = parser.parse_args()

f = args.frequency

if args.type == 'even':
odd = 0
mult = 2
elif args.type == 'odd':
odd = 1
mult = 2
else:   # all
odd = 0
mult = 1

t = np.linspace(0, 1, num=8000)
y = np.zeros(8000)

# compute and add fundamental with each harmonic
for i in range(int(args.harmonics)+1):
k = i * mult + odd
yh = factor(args.shape,k,i) * np.sin(2 * np.pi * k *  f * t)
y = y + yh

plt.plot(t, y)
plt.xlabel('time')
plt.ylabel('harmonics {0}'.format(args.harmonics))
plt.axis('tight')
plt.show()
print('finished')

```

## References

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Date: Oct. 17, 2019

Author: Mat

Comment:

Hi. Thanks for sharing your script. I think the script isn't working for "even" and "all" harmonics because that result in an divide by zero error --> 1/h. The parsing arguments wasn't working out of the box for me (Spyder Python 3.3.6). I modified following line: args = vars(parser.parse_args()) and than I worked with the dictionary, for example: f = int(args['frequency']) Best regards Date: June 10, 2020

Author: Mind Chasers

Comment:

Thank you Mat for your feedback. We have updated the script to include a "type" argument to each call of parser.add_argument(). Regarding your divide by zero comment, if someone using this example script experiences a ZeroDivisionError exception, they'll know where to look and can either modify factor() or how they're calling it.   