PostgreSQL is a powerful, stable, and highly configurable open source relational database. PostgreSQL 11 has recently been released. Since we're developers & our database is a core, networked system function, we want to work with the cutting edge release and its source to facilitate optimization, customization, and experimentation. Below is a basic guide on how we built and configured PostgreSQL from Git on Ubuntu Linux 18.04.
Install and Build from Git
Before we begin, let's see if we have PostgreSQL packages already installed on our Ubuntu 18.04 system. We show various ways below to detect whether remants of postgres exist on our system. As you can, our system is clean of previous releases.
$ which psql $ $ ps -e | grep post $ $ dpkg -l | grep postgres $ $ dpkg -l | grep libpq $ $ldconfig -p | grep libpq $
If it is installed, you can perform a remove or purge. Note that a purge will remove the configuration files along with the packages.
$ sudo apt purge postgresql-client-common postgresql-common postgresql
$ mkdir -p /build; cd /build $ git clone git://git.postgresql.org/git/postgresql.git $ cd postgresql/
We're going to work with the release 11 branch:
$ git branch -r origin/HEAD -> origin/master ... origin/REL_11_STABLE ... $ git checkout REL_11_STABLE Switched to branch 'REL_11_STABLE' Your branch is up to date with 'origin/REL_11_STABLE'. $ ls aclocal.m4 config configure configure.in contrib COPYRIGHT doc GNUmakefile.in HISTORY Makefile README README.git src
We can see from the directory list above, that we're dealing with an autotools project.
Also, we always prefer to build outside the source directory whenever possible, so let's create a new build directory and run configure from there. Note that you may need to install some packages before configure will succeed (e.g., libreadline6-dev, systemtap-sdt-dev, zlib1g-dev, libssl-dev, libpam0g-dev, and python-dev). Also, make sure you have flex and bison installed. If you get stuck on finding a package missing during configure, then take a look at the Ubuntu Packages Search page
$ sudo apt install libreadline6-dev systemtap-sdt-dev zlib1g-dev libssl-dev libpam0g-dev python-dev $ openssl version OpenSSL 1.1.0g 2 Nov 2017 # we're using Ubuntu's package version $ mkdir build; cd build # /build/postgresql/build $ ../configure --with-python --with-openssl --with-pam --enable-debug --enable-depend $ make ... All of PostgreSQL successfully made. Ready to install.
Note that configure has many build and install options. Run ../configure --help for more information.
Next we need to install postgreSQL. We're happy to stay with the default path of /usr/local/postgresql. However, the default path can be overridden with the use of configure options (e.g., --prefix=<default path>)
$ sudo make install
Let's now do some checking and general housekeeping:
$ cd /usr/local/pgsql/ $ tree -d -L 2 . ├── bin ├── include │ ├── informix │ ├── internal │ ├── libpq │ └── server ├── lib │ ├── pgxs │ └── pkgconfig └── share ├── extension ├── timezone ├── timezonesets └── tsearch_data $ find . -name '*.conf.sample' ./share/pg_ident.conf.sample ./share/pg_hba.conf.sample ./share/recovery.conf.sample ./share/postgresql.conf.sample ./share/pg_service.conf.sample
Basic Configure of PostgreSQL
We want to work with a separate user account, and we'll follow the convention of using the user account postgres.
$ sudo adduser --system --home /usr/local/pgsql/data --shell /bin/bash --group postgres Adding system user `postgres' (UID 123) ... Adding new group `postgres' (GID 130) ... Adding new user `postgres' (UID 123) with group `postgres' ... Creating home directory `/usr/local/pgsql/data' ... $ sudo adduser postgres ssl-cert Adding user `postgres' to group `ssl-cert' ... Adding user postgres to group ssl-cert Done. $ sudo adduser postgres sudo # or optionally perform a visudo Adding user `postgres' to group `sudo' ... Adding user postgres to group sudo Done. $ sudo passwd postgres # set our user passwd $ ls -l /usr/local/pgsql total 20 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Oct 10 12:35 bin drwxr-xr-x 2 postgres postgres 4096 Oct 10 12:38 data drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 4096 Oct 10 12:35 include drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Oct 10 12:35 lib drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 4096 Oct 10 12:35 share $ su postgres $ /usr/local/pgsql/bin/initdb -D /usr/local/pgsql/data --pwprompt # create a superuser password The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres". This user must also own the server process. The database cluster will be initialized with locale "en_US.UTF-8". The default database encoding has accordingly been set to "UTF8". The default text search configuration will be set to "english". Data page checksums are disabled. Enter new superuser password: Enter it again: fixing permissions on existing directory /usr/local/pgsql/data ... ok creating subdirectories ... ok selecting default max_connections ... 100 selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix creating configuration files ... ok running bootstrap script ... ok performing post-bootstrap initialization ... ok syncing data to disk ... ok WARNING: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or --auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb. Success. You can now start the database server using: /usr/local/pgsql/bin/pg_ctl -D /usr/local/pgsql/data -l logfile start
Now let's start the server but first modify the PATH environment variable to include /usr/local/pgsql/bin
$ cd /usr/local/pgsql/data $ echo 'export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/pgsql/bin' >> .bashrc # use single quotes so not to expand $PATH $ echo 'export PGDATA=/usr/local/pgsql/data' >> .bashrc $ source ./.bashrc $ pg_ctl start -l logfile server starting $ ps -e | grep postgres 1553 pts/0 00:00:00 postgres 1555 ? 00:00:00 postgres 1556 ? 00:00:00 postgres 1557 ? 00:00:00 postgres 1558 ? 00:00:00 postgres 1559 ? 00:00:00 postgres $ psql psql (10.0) Type "help" for help. postgres=#
Obviously, there's more work to do to get this working in your system including access permissions, which may be set via the pg_hba.conf file, and inclusion in your startup process. However, for our purpose of exercising and testing a postgreSQL database server that we built from a git branch, we're ready to begin testing with it.